The Christian, the Law, and Legalism, Part 2
by Karl Kemp 1/28/2012 / Bible Studies
Part 2 continues where Part 1 ended.
(27) You have heard that it was said, 'YOU SHALL NOT COMMIT ADULTERY [This is one of the ten commandments; see Ex. 20:14; Deut. 5:18.]; (28) but I say to you, that everyone who looks on a woman to lust for her has committed adultery with her already in his heart. [[The Old Testament certainly doesn't condone lusting (cf., e.g., 2 Sam. 11:2-4; Job 31:1), but Jesus put lusting in the category (an obviously very serious category) of adultery. (All sin is a serious matter to the Lord Jesus.) It is important to see that Jesus didn't say that if a man had a lustful thought, which he resisted, he had committed this sin (or any sin); He was speaking of a man who looks on a woman FOR THE PURPOSE OF LUSTING for her. That's very different from a man having a lustful thought and turning his head or closing his eyes so that he will not look at a woman with lust.]] (29) And if your right eye makes you stumble, tear it out, and throw it from you; for it is better for you that one of the parts of your body perish, than for your whole body to be thrown into hell [Gehenna]. [[This verse (and the next verse) certainly emphasizes the need for God's people to make it top priority to repent and live/walk in righteousness and holiness, by God's saving grace in Christ. Teachings/exhortations like Matt. 5:17-48 (cf., e.g., Luke 13:1-5) are designed to wake people up to see their need to repent and submit to the Savior from sin. There's no idea here of literally removing your right eye - that wouldn't begin to solve the sin problem that centers in the heart of man (cf., e.g., Mark 7:20-23), but these words call for a radical dealing with sin - it's serious business!]] (45) ...for He [God the Father] causes His sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the righteous and the unrighteous. [[I want to comment on these words, even though they are not relevant to our present topic, because they are so often misused in the Body of Christ (about half the time, based on my experience). It's a substantial blessing for God to send the sun and rain, not a curse. For one thing, without the sun and rain, there would be no harvest, and many are dependent on the rain for water to drink.]] ... (48) THEREFORE YOU ARE TO BE PERFECT, AS YOUR HEAVENLY FATHER IS PERFECT." [These words certainly constitute a call to walk in righteousness and holiness with the victory over all sin. Cf., e.g. 1 Pet. 1:14-16; 1 John 2:29; 3:9, 10.]
Matthew 7:23; 13:41-43; and 19:17. "And then I will declare to them, 'I never knew you; DEPART FROM ME, YOU WHO PRACTICE LAWLESSNESS.' ... (41) The Son of Man will send forth His angels, and they will gather out of His kingdom all stumbling blocks, and those who commit lawlessness, (42) and will throw them into the furnace of fire; in that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth. (43) Then THE RIGHTEOUS WILL SHINE FORTH AS THE SUN in the kingdom of their Father. He who has ears, let him hear. … (19:17b) …IF YOU WISH TO ENTER INTO LIFE, KEEP THE COMMANSDMENTS." These verses confirm that Christians cannot be characterized by lawlessness and expect to enter God's eternal kingdom.
Matthew 22:36-40 (Mark 12:28-31; Luke 10:25-28) with Romans 13:8-10; Galatians 5:14. The first passage shows that the entire Old Testament depends on the two basic commandments of loving God with our entire being and loving our neighbor as ourself. Romans 13:8-10 and Gal. 5:14 show that Christians are required to walk in love toward their neighbor; this is, Paul says, "the fulfillment of the law [Law]." Paul failed to mention in these verses that first and foremost we must love God with our entire being; he was dealing here with the need to love our neighbor, but he would be quick to agree that we don't fulfill the Law without loving God with all our heart, and with all our soul, and with all our mind, and with all our strength (cf. Mark 12:30).
Romans 2:1-16. It's necessary to see that the apostle Paul, though writing an epistle to the Christians at Rome, is dealing mostly with the Jews and their need for salvation through Christ Jesus in Rom. 2:1-3:20. See, e.g., Rom. 2:17-29. In Rom. 1:18-32 Paul shows why the Gentiles need salvation through Christ, and in Rom. 2:1-3:20 he shows why the Jews need this same salvation: All men are sinners, and are without excuse. In Rom. 3:9, which is a key summarizing verse, Paul says, "...we have already charged [referring back to Rom. 1:18-3:8] that both Jews and Greeks [Gentiles] are all under sin." Paul loved the Jews and the Gentiles (cf., e.g., Rom. 9:1-5; 1 Cor. 9:19-22); he wasn't attacking them, but it was necessary for him to help them see that they needed Christ. The gospel (good news) doesn't sound like good news until we see our need for salvation; then it's good news indeed. According to the gospel Paul preached, Christ is God's only answer to the sin problem.
"Therefore you are without excuse [[Paul begins to speak to the Jews here. For one thing, there is a contrast with what Paul said regarding the Gentiles in Rom. 1:32: The Gentiles not only sin, "but also give hearty approval to those who practice [sin]." The Jews, by contrast, tended to judge/condemn the Gentiles for their sins (cf. Rom. 2:17-20). The trouble was, it is hypocrisy to judge others for sinning when you are sinning yourself, and as Paul points out in this verse, there was much sin among the Jews (cf. Rom. 2:22-27). They too needed the Savior from sin. The Jews may not have been sinning in some of the ways the Gentiles were, or to the same extent, but God required more of them because of the light and blessings He had given them. The Jews tended to minimize their sin; didn't they descend from Abraham; didn't they have the Bible (Old Testament); didn't they have the temple, the sacrifices, the Day of Atonement, circumcision, etc? Christians very often make the same mistake, and it can be a catastrophic mistake.]], every man of you who passes judgment, for in that you judge another, you condemn yourself; for you who judge practice the same things. [[This verse has sometimes been wrongly applied to Christians, which is a serious misunderstanding of Paul. His gospel, as He presented it in Romans, includes (he even puts a strong emphasis on) victory over sin for Christians (by grace through faith). Paul has already brought this up in Rom. 1:16, 17, which contains the theme for his epistle to the Romans. (I'll comment on these super-important verses later in this paper.) A primary purpose for Romans chapter 2 was to help the Jews see that they needed new-covenant salvation, so they could begin to walk/live in the righteousness of God with victory over sin; Paul certainly didn't write this verse to teach Christians that they couldn't walk in this victory. It's no wonder we don't see more faith for victory over sin in the Body of Christ when we so seriously misunderstand the New Testament. It's true, of course, that to the extent Christians are living in sin, what Paul says here would apply to them too, even though Paul wasn't addressing that issue here.]] (2) And we know that the judgment of God rightly falls upon those who practice such things. (3) And do you suppose this, O man, when you pass judgment upon those who practice such things and do the same yourself, that you will escape the judgment of God? (4) Or do you think lightly of the riches of His kindness and forbearance and patience, not knowing that the kindness of God leads you to repentance? [[The point here in 2:4 is that when God is kind, forbearing, and patient, as He had been with the Jews in those days, giving them much time to repent, God's people often wrongly assume that there isn't much need for repentance. Cf. 2 Pet. 3:9. Intense judgment wasn't far off for Israel. About fifteen years after Paul wrote Romans, Jerusalem, the temple, and much of Israel were destroyed by the Romans, and judgment day is yet to come for all mankind.]] (5) But because of your stubbornness and unrepentant heart you are storing up wrath for yourself in the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God [The next verse helps explain the RIGHTEOUS judgment of God. There will be no partiality in God's judgment for Jew, Gentile, or Christian (see Rom. 2:11).], (6) who WILL RENDER TO EVERY MAN ACCORDING TO HIS DEEDS [WORKS] [[Cf. Psalm 62:12; Prov. 24:12; Matt. 16:27; John 5:28, 29; Rom. 14:11, 12; 1 Cor. 3:13-15; 2 Cor. 5:10; 11:15; Gal. 6:7-9; Eph. 5:6, 7; 1 Pet. 1:17; Rev. 20:12, 13; and 22:12. A major point Paul makes in this chapter is that it won't be good enough to depend on your Jewishness to suffice to open the doors of heaven; the same thing is true for Christians, but I find a lot of Christians confused in this area. It is true, of course, that true Christians are forgiven when they ask for forgiveness (and forgiven sins will not be held against us on judgment day), but it is also true that our Christian life (our works) must reflect the reality of our salvation. (True Christian faith will necessarily bring forth good works [a righteous life] by God's grace/Spirit; we'll discuss the need for works of righteousness (by grace through faith) in a later section of this paper.]]: (7) TO THOSE WHO BY PERSEVERANCE IN DOING GOOD SEEK FOR GLORY AND HONOR AND IMMORTALITY [[Paul is speaking of Christians here; all Christians are enabled, and required, to live like this. Paul (who received his gospel by revelation) didn't believe there were any people on the earth so righteous that they could bypass salvation through Christ Jesus; he was sent to preach the gospel to all men. Paul is dealing here with the people of his generation to whom the gospel was being proclaimed.]], ETERNAL LIFE [When judgment day comes, they will be ready, and they will inherit eternal life; God will render eternal life to them (cf. Rom. 2:6). See Rom. 6:22, 23. All those interested in doing good and inheriting eternal life will be interested in the gospel, which gives God's only answer to the sin problem.]; (8) BUT TO THOSE WHO ARE SELFISHLY AMBITIOUS AND DO NOT OBEY THE TRUTH [[the truth of the gospel (cf. Rom. 10:16 [KJV]), the truth that includes the righteousness and holiness of God (cf. Eph. 4:24)]], but obey unrighteousness [God "will render to (them)"], WRATH AND INDIGNATION [instead of eternal life]. (9) There will be tribulation and distress for every soul of man who does evil, of the Jew first and also of the Greek, (10) BUT GLORY HONOR AND PEACE TO EVERY MAN WHO DOES GOOD [As in Rom. 2:7, Paul is speaking of true Christians here.], to the Jew first and also to the Greek. (11) FOR THERE IS NO PARTIALITY WITH GOD. [Cf., e.g., Acts 10:34; Col. 3:25; and 1 Pet. 1:17. This verse proclaims essentially the same truth as Rom. 2:6. These words apply to all people, including Christians.] (12) For all who have sinned without the Law [speaking of non-Christian Gentiles] will also perish without the Law; and all who have sinned under the Law [speaking of the Jews who had not submitted to the gospel in faith] will be judged [condemned] by the Law; (13) FOR NOT THE HEARERS OF THE LAW are just [[There is no verb in the Greek here in 2:13; it must be supplied in the English translation; the Greek just has the adjective "dikaios" translated "just," which is normally translated "righteous." I would translate "WILL BE RIGHTEOUS." Paul seems to be looking forward to judgment day (cf. Rom. 2:5-12, 16), and note that he uses the future tense in the verb at the end of this verse. This Greek verb ("dikaioo") is closely related to the Greek adjective "dikaios"; it was derived from the adjective.]] BEFORE GOD, BUT THE DOERS OF THE LAW WILL BE WILL BE JUSTIFIED [that is, they WILL BE FOUND RIGHTEOUS/THEY WILL BE DECLARED RIGHTEOUS]. [[Paul's point here is that it's not good enough for the Jews to be hearers of the Law; if they want to be found righteous (and declared righteous) on judgment day, they must be righteous, they must be doers of the Law; therefore, as far as Paul was concerned, the Jews needed to receive Christ so they could become righteous/doers of the Law. It really isn't Paul's point here, but it must be observed that Paul would be engaged in great hypocrisy if he was telling the Jews that they must actually be righteous/doers or the Law unless the same truth also applies to Christians - it does apply (but many Christians don't know it).
This is good news! We have been set free from slavery to sin! In Rom. 2:26, 27 and 8:4 (three ultra-important verses that are discussed next in this section), Paul says that Christians keep the Law/the requirement(s) of the Law. As this entire paper shows, Paul (along with the rest of the Bible) frequently shows that Christians are enabled, and required, to walk/live in righteousness and holiness. On the need to be doers of God's Word, cf., e.g., Matt. 7:24-27; James 1:21-25.]] (14) For when the Gentiles who do not have the Law do instinctively the things of the Law, these, not having the Law, are a law to themselves, (15) in that they show the work of the Law written in their hearts, their conscience bearing witness, and their thoughts alternately accusing of else defending them [[It's important to see that Paul is speaking of non-Christian Gentiles here. He is making two important points. For one thing, he shows that God has a basis, a standard, by which to judge the Gentiles on judgment day. They have a law in their heart, their conscience, given by God. It's also true that they have many basic truths regarding right and wrong in their cultures; some of these basic truths, based on God's earlier revelations, have been passed down through the generations. Paul doesn't say that the Gentiles had the same light that the Jews did (with their Law, etc.), but he does say that they have enough light to be judged by God.
It's important that we don't confuse the "work of the Law written in their hearts [the hearts of non-Christian Gentiles]" with the glorious prophecy of Jer. 31:31-34, where God prophesied that there would be a new covenant and that a major feature of this covenant was that He would write His Law on the hearts of His people. Jeremiah's prophecy speaks of God's transforming His people in their hearts (through new-covenant salvation) that they might begin to fully do His will (His Law) from their hearts. (We'll further discuss this prophecy of Jeremiah later in this section.)
The work of the Law written in the hearts of non-Christian Gentiles speaks only of their conscience; it certainly doesn't speak of their being transformed or of their fully keeping God's Law. Note that Rom. 2:15 shows that often their conscience tells them they have sinned. I'm quite confident that Paul didn't believe there were any non-Christian Gentiles so fully living in the will of God that they didn't need to repent and submit to the Savior from sin. Remember that the primary thing Paul is doing in this part of Romans is showing that all men, all Jews and all Gentiles, are sinners and therefore need new-covenant salvation (cf. Rom. 3:9).
A second point Paul makes here in verses 14, 15 is that the Jews shouldn't overestimate the significance of their having the Law. It was a blessing all right, but the Gentiles have a law too. The real need, as Paul shows in verse 13, is to become a doer of God's law.]], (16) on the day [the day of judgment] when, according to my gospel [which Paul received from Jesus Christ], God will judge the secrets of men [including their motives, and the sins they know about in their hearts] through Christ Jesus [cf., e.g., Matt. 16:27; John 5:22, 27; and 2 Cor. 5:10]."
Romans 2:26-29. "IF THEREFORE THE UNCIRCUMCISED MAN [[Paul is speaking of a GENTILE CHRISTIAN. It's clear, I believe, that Paul is speaking of a Christian here. Throughout this paper I demonstrate that the New Testament shows that Christians, and only Christians, are enabled to keep the Law of God and live in His righteousness and holiness, by grace through faith. As I showed above under Rom. 2:1-16, a primary purpose for Paul's writing Rom. 2:1-3:20 was to demonstrate that, though the Jews had the Law, they weren't keeping the Law (they weren't doers of the Law), and therefore they too (with the Gentiles) needed Christ. What he says here in Rom. 2:26, 27 of a Gentile Christian's keeping the Law/the requirements of the Law would also be true of a Christian from a Jewish background, but Paul makes his point (that Jews need Christ too) more forcefully by contrasting the circumcised non-Christian Jew with an uncircumcised Gentile Christian.]] KEEPS THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE LAW, will not his uncircumcision be regarded as circumcision? [[It's clear that Paul is excluding the keeping of ceremonial parts of the Law, which include circumcision. On judgment day this Gentile Christian (being physically uncircumcised), who has been so transformed by the grace of God in Christ that he lives in righteousness and holiness (he "keeps the requirements of the Law") "will be regarded as circumcision" in the sense that he will be regarded as righteous since all that was sinful had been cut away from his heart and life by the new-covenant circumcision wrought by the Spirit spoken of in Rom. 2:29. Romans 8:4 (discussed next) is a very important cross-reference; it speaks of "the requirement (using the same Greek noun as Rom. 2:26) of the Law" being fulfilled by Christians as they walk after the Spirit (which Christians are required to do).]] (27) AND WILL NOT HE WHO IS PHYSICALLY UNCIRCUMCISED, if he keeps the Law [[This is even richer in the Greek in that there is no "if" here. I would translate "KEEPING THE LAW." The NIV doesn't have an "if" here: "The one who is not circumcised physically and yet obeys the law will condemn you who, even though you have the written code and circumcision, are a lawbreaker."]], will he not judge [[I would translate "condemn," with the NIV. The idea is that this Gentile Christian who has become a doer of the Law will condemn, by contrast, the Jew who wasn't a doer of the Law. (Cf. Matt. 12:41, 42.) Paul's purpose here is not to ridicule the Jew (all men are sinners apart from the grace of God in Christ), but to help him see his need for Christ. (It's not love to flatter someone with lies; true love shares the truth.) I must point out that many Christians are far from being doers of the Law, but not because the grace of God is insufficient. Many Christians don't believe it's possible for them to really be righteous and live in the will of God; however, the apostle Paul (and the other writers of the New Testament) did.]] you who though having the letter of the Law and circumcision are a transgressor of the Law? (28) For [[This "For" at the beginning of verse 28 ties verses 28, 29 to verses 26, 27. Here in verses 28, 29 Paul shows, as he so often does, that the only way for men to become fully righteous and holy is through new-covenant salvation in the blood of Christ, since it is only the new covenant that brings the new birth and transformation to righteousness by the Holy Spirit.]] he is not a [real] Jew who is one outwardly [that is, without the new-covenant inward ("of the heart") work of the Spirit]; neither is [real] circumcision that which is outward in the flesh. (29) But he is a [real] Jew who is one inwardly; AND [REAL] CIRCUMCISION IS THAT WHICH IS OF THE HEART, BY THE SPIRIT, NOT BY THE LETTER [["the letter" of the Mosaic Law. The old covenant, which was established on the basis of the Mosaic Law, was good, and it was from God; however, it could not accomplish the life-giving, sanctifying work of the Spirit reserved for the new covenant. See, e.g., Rom. 6:14; 7:1-8:14 (these verses are discussed in my book, "Holiness and Victory Over Sin"); 2 Cor. 3:6-18; and Gal. 3:1-29 (these verses are discussed in my "A Paper On Faith"), especially see Gal. 3:21.]]; and his praise is not from men, but from God." There's always the danger of people (very much including Christians) seeking the praise of other men, especially their religious peers, more than they seek the only really important praise (using praise in the sense of acceptance/approval), the praise of God. Cf. John 5:44; 12:43; 1 Cor. 4:5; and 2 Cor. 10:18. To fully appreciate what Paul says in Rom. 2:26-29, we must know the meaning of the word "Jew," which derives from "Judah," and means "praise."
Romans 8:4. I don't suppose there is any more important verse in the Bible to demonstrate the bottom line of new-covenant salvation: "THAT THE REQUIREMENT OF THE LAW MIGHT BE FULFILLED IN US [In other words, that we Christians might live/walk in righteousness and holiness, doing the will of God from the heart. As this verse continues, it shows how this happens:] WHO DO NOT WALK ACCORDING TO THE FLESH [which is all that is possible until you are born again through Christ Jesus], BUT ACCORDING TO THE [HOLY] SPIRIT." As born-again Christians, we are enabled, and required, to walk after the Spirit through faith. (See, e.g., Gal. 5:16-25, which is discussed in my book, "Holiness and Victory Over Sin.") Romans 8:4 is all the more enlightening, glorious, and powerful when it is studied in context with all of Rom. 8:1-17. (See pages 116-123 of "Holiness and Victory Over Sin" for a discussion of these verses.) Romans 8:4 is more glorious yet when studied in context with all of Rom. 1:1-8:17. (Much of this extended passage is discussed in "Holiness and Victory Over Sin," and this teaching is supplemented in my subsequent writings, including this present paper, which discusses most of Romans chapter 2 in some detail.)
1 Corinthians 9:20, 21; Galatians 6:2. "And to the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might win Jews [that is, that he might win them to Christ]; to those who are under the Law, as under the Law [When Paul was with the Jews, he did everything he reasonably could to show them respect and keep from unnecessarily offending them.], though not being myself under the Law [See section 8 of this paper.], that I might win those who are under the Law; (21) to those who are without law, as without law [When Paul was with the Gentiles, he didn't conform to the ceremonial (non-moral) law of the Jews, things that would have tended to separate him from the Gentiles and unnecessarily offended them.], THOUGH NOT BEING WITHOUT THE LAW OF GOD BUT UNDER THE LAW OF CHRIST [[These words are important to our study. The apostle doesn't define here what he means by being under the law of Christ, but I assume it includes everything required of Christians to live in the will of God (cf., e.g., Rom. 12:1, 2). This includes living in line with the moral law of the Old Testament and the commandments given by Christ (including those given through His apostles in the New Testament). As slaves of Christ (cf. 1 Cor. 7:22; Eph. 6:6), we are enabled (by God's saving grace), and required, to be faithful to Him in all things. We're not Law oriented - we're Christ/grace oriented - but we are required to keep His moral law. In the light of Matt. 22:36-40 with Rom. 13:8-10; Gal. 5:14 (discussed above), the "law of Christ" undoubtedly includes an emphasis on walking in love.]], that I might win those who are without law [the Gentiles]." Galatians 6:2 says, "Bear one another's burdens, and THUS FULFILL THE LAW OF CHRIST." In Gal. 6:2 fulfilling the law of Christ could be understood in the somewhat limited sense of the requirement to walk in love (cf. Gal. 5:13, 14) by the enablement of the Spirit (cf. Gal. 5:16-18, 22, 25); however, it's probably better to understand the law of Christ in the somewhat fuller sense just discussed under 1 Cor. 9:21.
Hebrews 8:10; 10:16 with Jeremiah 31:33. In Jer. 31:31-34 Jeremiah prophesied regarding the new covenant. Jeremiah 31:32 helps show why a new covenant was needed: Although God had given Israel the old covenant, established on the Mosaic Law, Israel rather consistently broke that covenant (not that this was a surprise to God; cf., e.g., 1 Pet. 1:19, 20). God didn't give the old covenant to solve the sin problem (see Gal. 3:21, for example). JEREMIAH 31:33 SHOWS THAT A MAJOR FEATURE OF THE NEW COVENANT IS THAT GOD WILL PUT HIS LAW WITHIN HIS PEOPLE (IN THEIR HEARTS). In other words, HE WILL CHANGE THEM DOWN INSIDE, AND THEY WILL THEN DO HIS WILL; THEY WILL LIVE IN LINE WITH HIS LAW; THEY WILL LIVE IN HIS RIGHTEOUSNESS AND HOLINESS. Ezekiel 11:19, 20 and 36:26, 27 are important cross-references for Jer. 31:33, and they are important references for this study. The last verse, Ezek. 36:27 is doubly relevant in that it also prophesies of the new-covenant, sanctifying work of the Spirit: "AND I WILL PUT MY SPIRIT WITHIN YOU AND CAUSE YOU TO WALK IN MY STATUTES, AND YOU WILL BE CAREFUL TO OBSERVE MY ORDINANCES." See pages 156-163 of my book, "Holiness and Victory Over Sin" for a discussion of Heb. 8:6-13 and 10:8-18, passages that build on Jer. 31:31-34.
James 1:18-2:13. "In the exercise of His will He brought us forth [This speaks of the new birth; the Greek verb used here can be translated "give birth to," and the same Greek verb is translated that way (by the NASB) in 1:15.] by the word of truth [[Cf., e.g., 1 Pet. 1:23-25. The "word of truth," through which God brought us forth by His Spirit (when we submitted to Him and His "word of truth" in faith) clearly includes the gospel message of new-covenant salvation in Christ Jesus. And (because of James 1:12-17 and the teaching of many of the verses that follow to the end of this passage [and much of the rest of the book of James and the rest of the New Testament], with a strong emphasis on the need for Christians to be doers of God's word/law), the "word of truth" here surely includes God's moral law (including the moral law contained in the Old Testament), which Christians are enabled, and required, to keep (by grace through faith). Keeping God's moral law is a big part of what the gospel of new-covenant salvation is all about. As this paper demonstrates throughout, Christians are enabled, and required, to keep God's moral law, which includes walking in His righteousness, holiness, love, etc.
Born-again Christians do not automatically put off sin and keep God's moral law, and James does a lot of exhorting Christians with the requirement to walk in line with God's Word. For one thing, Christians must understand God's Word (which includes knowing what God has provided for us in the new-covenant and what He requires of us). And Christians do not automatically walk by the Holy Spirit on a continuous basis (which we are enabled, and required, to do [cf., e.g., Gal. 5:16]).]], so that we might be, as it were, the first fruits among His creatures [The NIV has, "of all he created." Cf. Rom. 8:18-25.]. (19) This you know, my beloved brethren. But [or, Now] let everyone be quick to hear [For one thing, we must be quick to hear God's word.], slow to speak and slow to anger; (20) for the anger of man does not achieve the righteousness of God. [These words of 1:19, 20 are quite important, and we need to listen. Also see 3:5-4:2.]
Part 3 will continue the discussion of James 1:18-2:13 with James 1:21, which is a very important verse.
http://www.karlkempteachingministries.com Karl Kemp worked as an engineer in the space field throughout the 60s. He became a born-again Christian in 1964. He received an MA in Biblical Studies in 1972. He has been a Bible teacher for 45 years. See the website for more info on his books, papers, etc.