We will continue the verse-by-verse study of Rev. 14:6-19:21 here in part 7, starting with Revelation chapter 19, verse 1.
"After these things I heard, as it were, a loud voice of a great multitude in heaven [cf. Jer. 51:48; Rev. 18:20], saying, 'Hallelujah! [[This last word is also found in Rev. 19:3, 4, and 6. This glorious word of praise, which is a transliteration of two closely connected Hebrew words that mean "Praise Yah!," is not found anywhere else in the New Testament. ("Yah" is typically considered to be a shortened form of "Yahweh.") Also, although these two Hebrew words are used together quite a few times in the book of Psalms (e.g., Psalms 104:35; 111:1; 112:1; 113:1, 9; 115:18; and 135:1, 3, 21), the word "Hallelujah" doesn't show up in the translations of the Old Testament. The NASB has "Praise the LORD!" in these verses from Psalms. So do the NIV and NKJV; the KJV has "Praise the LORD" or "Praise ye the LORD." Some Bible translations (including the NASB, NIV, KJV, and NKJV) use four capital letters for the word LORD to show that the Hebrew has Yahweh. On the name Yahweh, see my paper, "The Name Yahweh and God the Father and God the Son."]] Salvation [cf. Psalm 3:8; Rev. 7:10; and 12:10] and glory and power belong to our God [[It's not clear whose loud voice sounds forth here (and it's not necessary for us to know), but it probably is the voice of angels, as in Rev. 5:11, 12 (cf. Rev. 7:11, 12; 11:15). (The KJV has, "...I heard a great voice of much people in heaven...." I'm not denying the possibility that this could be the voice of the saints/people in heaven. Some understand the voice this way. But "great multitude" is the better translation, which still could refer to people. The NIV and NKJV have "great multitude.") Revelation 5:14 then says, "And the four living creatures kept saying, 'Amen.' And the [twenty-four] elders fell down and worshiped." Note the contribution of the twenty-four elders and the four living creatures in Rev. 19:4 (cf. Rev. 11:16-18): In Rev. 19:4 we read of the worship and of the "Amen, Hallelujah!" of the twenty-four elders and the four living creatures. Next, in response to the call from the throne for God's bond-servants (probably referring to the saints/all the members of God's true Israel who are in heaven/the heavenly dimension by that time, near the end of Daniel's 70th week) to praise Him (Rev. 19:5), they praise Him (Rev. 19:6-8).]]; (2) BECAUSE HIS JUDGMENTS ARE TRUE AND RIGHTEOUS [cf. Psalm 19:9; Rev. 15:3, 4; and 16:7]; for He has judged the great harlot who was corrupting the earth with her immorality [cf. Rev. 17:1-18:24], and HE HAS AVENGED THE BLOOD OF HIS BOND-SERVANTS ON HER.' [See Deut. 32:43; Rev. 6:10, 11; 17:6; and 18:20, 24; cf. Rev. 16:5-7. As the margin of the NASB points out, the Greek behind "ON HER" literally reads "from her hand." The idea is that God avenges the blood that has been shed by her hand/by her. The NKJV, for example, has, "the blood of His servants shed by her."] (3) And a second time they said, 'Hallelujah! HER SMOKE RISES UP FOREVER AND FOREVER.' [[See Isa. 34:10 (Edom is a symbol for the world in Isaiah chapter 34); Rev. 14:10, 11; 17:16; 18:8, 9, 18; 19:20; 20:10, 14, 15; and 21:8; cf. Isa. 66:24. The time setting here is very near the end of Daniel's 70th week. The Lord Jesus has already judged and destroyed Babylon the great harlot, and the smoke of her burning rises up forever and ever. It is now time for Him to judge and destroy Antichrist and those who have been gathered (by Satan, Antichrist, and the false prophet and the demons coming out of their mouths [Rev. 16:12-16]) to Har-Magedon to fight against Him and His army, and that won't take long.]] (4) And the twenty-four elders and the four living creatures fell down and worshiped God who sits on the throne [cf., e.g., Rev. 4:4-11], saying, 'Amen. Hallelujah!' (5) And a voice came from the throne, saying, 'Give praise to our God, all you His bond-servants, you who fear Him, the small and the great.' (6) And I heard, as it were, the voice of a great multitude [[The Greek noun "doulos," the plural of which is translated "bond-servants" in verse 5, is always used of members of true Israel (the woman of Revelation chapter 12) in the book of Revelation, with the exception of three uses where it refers to literal slaves. With the added words "you who fear Him, the small and the great" (cf. Rev. 11:18; Psalm 115:13), it seems rather clear that the "bond-servants" here are those members of true Israel who will already be in heaven/the heavenly dimension at that time, near the end of Daniel's 70th week. (This "voice of a great multitude," like the voices of Rev. 19:1-5, apparently also comes from heaven/the heavenly dimension.) I should mention that angels also are bond-servants of God: The Greek noun "sundoulos," which is used three times in the book of Revelation, is used twice of angels being "fellow [bond] servants" with the saints (Rev. 19:10; 22:9).]] and as the sound of many waters [cf. Rev. 1:15; 14:2] and as the sound of mighty peals of thunder [cf. Rev. 14:2; 6:1], saying, 'Hallelujah! [This word, which, as we discussed, means "Praise Yah [the LORD]!," answers (in part) the call to give praise to God of Rev. 19:5.] For the Lord our God, the Almighty, reigns. [[The reign spoken of here began in the middle of Daniel's 70th week (cf. Rev. 11:15-18; 12:10; and Matt. 6:10). The Greek verb used here, which is the equivalent of the Greek verb used in 11:17, could be translated "has begun to reign."
I'll quote the introductory remarks of G. K. Beale ("Book of Revelation" [Eerdmans, 1999], page 926) to his discussion of Rev. 19:1-6. "The dual theme of reward to the saints and destruction of their enemies announced by the seventh trumpet (11:15-19) is picked up again in ch. 19, as is evident from the verbal similarities, especially in 19:5-6, specifically the threefold description of believers (11:18), the declaration of the commencement of God's reign (11:15-16).... [Revelation] 19:1-6 (perhaps extending to verse 8) actually continues the last segment of ch. 18 (18:20-24) and may be seen as the conclusion of that segment in its emphasis on Babylon's fall."]] (7) Let us rejoice and be glad [cf. Psalm 118:24; Matt. 5:12; and 1 Pet. 4:13] and give the glory to Him [God the Father; "the Lord our God, the Almighty" of Rev. 19:6], for the marriage of the Lamb has come and His bride has made herself ready [cf. Rev. 21:2 ("made ready as a bride adorned for her husband"), 9; 22:17].' [[See Matt. 22:12; 25:10; Mark 2:19, 20; Luke 12:36; John 3:29; 2 Cor. 11:2, 3; and Eph. 5:23-32. WHO IS THE BRIDE OF CHRIST? The bride of Christ is God's true Israel, the woman of Revelation chapter 12. The bride clearly includes all true Christians of this entire age, who are glorified and raptured when Christ returns in the middle of Daniel's 70th week. I believe it also includes all true believers from Old Testament days; they too will be glorified and raptured when Christ returns. Both groups are part of true Israel, but so too are those who will become Christians after the mid-week rapture, centering in the end-time remnant of the nation Israel. We can see those converted after the rapture in Rev. 12:6-17, for example. Rev. 12:17 shows that they are Christians with the words, "[those] who keep the commandments of God and hold to the testimony of Jesus." I believe all the members of true Israel will be glorified and begin to reign by the time the millennial kingdom begins.
The marriage of the Lamb with His bride is a figurative way to speak of the glorious, intimate, relationship/communion that will take place between Christ and His people throughout eternity. (I believe that the relationship between God the Father and the members of true Israel will be equally glorious.) Born-again Christians have already become united with the Lord Jesus Christ, but most of the glory of that relationship is reserved for the future, after we have been glorified.
This marriage won't take place in its full and final sense until all the members of the bride, true Israel, are fully ready, after they have all finished the race and been glorified, which will not come to pass until the end of Daniel's 70th week. Revelation 20:4 indicates that the martyrs of the second half of Daniel's 70th week won't be resurrected and glorified until after Antichrist and his forces have been destroyed (at the end of Daniel's 70th week). It seems equally clear that those members of true Israel who are still alive on the earth at the end of Daniel's 70th week won't be glorified until after Antichrist is destroyed.
The bride "[makes] herself ready" by submitting to the gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ in faith and being sanctified (by becoming saints), and staying sanctified, through the grace of God in Christ (cf., e.g., 2 Cor. 7:1; Eph. 2:10; 1 Pet. 1:13-19; 2 Pet. 3:14; and 1 John 3:3). The next verse (and all the verses listed at the beginning of this discussion of Rev. 19:7, starting with Matt. 22:12, with the exception of John 3:29, when read in their contexts) confirms that the emphasis is on Christians believing right and living right/doing righteous acts (by grace/the Spirit through faith), always being fully ready for Christ's return, not on forgiveness and right standing (but thanks be to God for forgiveness).]] (8) And it was given to her to clothe herself in fine linen, bright and clean; for the fine linen is the righteous acts of the saints. [[The NASB and NKJV have closing quotation marks at the end of Rev. 19:7. The NIV, however, has the closing quotation marks in the middle of Rev. 19:8. The "UBS Greek New Testament" (Fourth Revised Edition) continues the quotation to the end of 19:8, as do the Twentieth Century New Testament, the New Testament in Modern English by J. B. Phillips, and the Jerusalem Bible. I prefer this last option. The location of the closing quotation marks doesn't affect the overall meaning of these verses.
Significantly, the last words of this verse ("for the fine linen is the righteous acts of the saints") make it clear that the emphasis is on the fact that Christians are called and enabled to live in the righteousness and holiness of God through the saving grace of God in Christ, not on forgiveness and having a right standing before God. This is very good news! God hates sin, and He paid a very high price to give us the victory over sin! See my book, "Holiness and Victory Over Sin: Full Salvation Through the Atoning Death of the Lord Jesus Christ."
See Rev. 19:14; 3:4, 5 ("But you have a few people in Sardis who have not soiled their garments; and they will walk with Me in white; for they are worthy [by the saving, sanctifying grace of God in Christ]. He who overcomes [and we must be overcomers according to the book of Revelation] shall thus be clothed in white garments; and I will not erase his name from the book of life, and I will confess his name before My Father, and before His angels."); 6:11; 7:9, 14 ("...and they have washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb"; we are sanctified by the blood of the Lamb); and 15:6. All these references speak of heavenly garments. Revelation 19:8 and 15:6 both have the adjectives "bright" and "clean." Revelation 19:14 has the adjectives "white" and "clean." Revelation 3:4, 5; 6:11; and 7:9, 14 have the adjective "white." I'll also read Rev. 22:14, "Blessed are those who wash their robes [through new-covenant salvation in the blood of the Lamb, as in Rev. 7:14], so that they may have the right to the tree of life, and may enter by the gates into the city [new Jerusalem]."]] (9) And he said to me, 'Write [cf. Rev. 1:11, 19; 2:1, 8, 12, 18; 3:1, 7, 14; 10:4; 14:13; and 21:5], "Blessed are those who are invited to the marriage supper of the Lamb [cf. Luke 14:15]." ' [[The setting here is quite different than the setting in Matt. 22:1-14. In Matt. 22:1-14 all are invited to come to the "wedding feast for [the] son" (Matt. 22:2), but it's clear that those who accept the invitation are required to make themselves ready: They must be "dressed in wedding clothes" when the time arrives for the wedding feast (Matt. 22:11, 12); in other words, they must submit (in faith) to the terms of the new covenant and then stay faithful. Those who don't make themselves ready will be rejected (Matt. 22:11-14).
By the time the marriage supper of the Lamb (of Rev. 19:9) takes place, about the time of the end of Daniel's 70th week, all the members of true Israel (including those who become believers after the rapture) will have finished their race and been glorified. None of them will be rejected, unlike the situation in Matt. 22:14, which says, "For many are called (this call is the same as the invitation/call of Matt. 22:3-10), but few are chosen" (chosen, that is, to have a place in God's eternal kingdom).
The words "those who are invited" (Rev.19:9) are a translation of a Greek perfect participle of the verb "kaleo," which means "call, invite." The KJV has, "they which are called"; the NKJV has, "those who are called." I would translate "those who have been invited [or, called]," as does the Weymouth translation. Revelation 17:14 is an important cross-reference; it speaks of the glorified saints, who are with Christ after the rapture, as the "called and chosen and faithful." The Greek adjective translated "called" in 17:14 ("kletos") was derived from the verb "kaleo. Those "chosen [elected]" by God to be part of true Israel are called/invited to "the marriage supper of the Lamb." Their names are found in the Lamb's book of life (cf. Rev. 13:8; 17:8), and at the end they are found to be "faithful." Their Christian lives were characterized by "righteous acts" (Rev. 19:8). On Christians (the elect) being called by God, see, for example, Rom. 8:28-30; 1 Cor. 1:9, 24; and 2 Thess. 2:13-15.
In this interpretation of Rev. 19:7-10, I am agreeing with the common, but not universally accepted, viewpoint that "those who are invited to the marriage supper of the Lamb" are the same people who constitute the bride of 19:7, 8. The flexible nature of the figurative language of the Bible permits such variation. In Rev. 5:5 Christ is referred to as a Lion; in 5:6 He is a Lamb. In 7:17 He is both a Lamb and a Shepherd. In the parable of the wedding feast for the son (Son) in Matt. 22:1-14, those who are invited to the wedding feast take the place of the bride, and in Matt. 25:1-13 the ten virgins take the place of the bride. For one thing, when you speak of a bride you typically think of one person; by speaking of those invited to the wedding feast, or of ten virgins, it permits speaking of many people. In Matt. 22:1-14 and in Matt. 25:1-13 it was necessary to speak of multiple persons to include the idea that some would be faithful and ready, and some wouldn't.
In Rev. 19:7-9 it wasn't absolutely necessary to expand the bride to multiple persons because all the people who are part of the bride in the setting of Rev. 19:7-9 will be ready for the marriage/marriage feast, but it was helpful to expand the picture of the bride to demonstrate the blessing prepared for all the members of true Israel. Revelation chapter 12 provides another good example of flexible language: True Israel is pictured as a woman and as the seed/offspring of the woman. Lastly, I'll quote two sentences from Robert H. Mounce ("Book of Revelation" [Eerdmans, 1977], page 341). "Note that in verses 7-9 the church is pictured both as the bride and as the guests who are invited to the wedding. Far from constituting a contradiction, this sort of freedom is a normal characteristic of apocalyptic writing."
Although it is true that "the nations" mentioned in Rev. 20:3 will be converted and interact with true Israel in the millennial kingdom (cf., e.g., Rev. 15:4; 20:6; Isa. 2:2-4; and Zech. 14:16-21), I don't believe it was intended here that we should think of them being "invited to the marriage supper of the Lamb." (The people of the nations will not be glorified as they live on the earth in the millennial kingdom.)]] And he said to me, These are true words of God [cf. Rev. 21:5; 22:6].' [[Apparently the person speaking here is the angel mentioned in Rev. 17:1. The revelation regarding the judgment of Babylon the great harlot, which continued to this verse in chapter 19, came through this angel. The last few verses (Rev. 19:6-9) go beyond the destruction of Babylon the harlot and speak of the glorious woman totally opposite the harlot, the bride of Christ. This angel apparently was referring to all the words of Rev. 17:1-19:9 when he said, "These are true words of God." The book of Revelation goes out of its way to repeatedly mention that the contents of this book are true and trustworthy. This book is extremely significant, not to minimize the importance of the other prophetic passages contained in the Bible.]] (10) And I fell at his feet to worship him. [John fell at the feet of the angel (one of the seven angels who had the seven bowls) mentioned in Rev. 17:1. Compare Col. 2:18 (I'm not suggesting that John was guilty of worshiping angels in the sense spoken of by Paul in that verse).] And he said to me, 'Do not do that; I am a fellow servant [or, bond-servant] of yours and your brethren who hold the testimony of Jesus [They testified to Jesus, that He was the Son of God, the Lamb of God, their resurrected Savior, etc. (cf. Rev. 1:9; 12:17; and 20:4).]; worship God. For the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy. [[Christians are to worship God, and only God, which here (as the last sentence in this verse demonstrates, along with much other Scripture) includes God the Son. (Other verses demonstrate that the Holy Spirit is included with the Father and the Son in the Trinity.) Although the word God is typically reserved for God the Father in the New Testament (even as the name Yahweh is typically reserved for God the Father in the Old Testament), the word is sometimes used for God the Son in the New Testament (cf. John 1:1; 20:28; and Heb. 1:8). The name Yahweh is used for God the Son several times in the Old Testament too. See my papers titled, "The Name Yahweh and God the Father and God the Son"; "Who Do We Worship?"; "Who Do We Pray To?"; and "More on the Trinity."
The word "prophecy" in the Greek here has the definite article (which is similar to our "the" in English). It would probably be better to translate "the prophecy" here, which would limit the prophecy spoken of here to the prophecy of the book of Revelation. (Revelation 1:3; 22:7, 10, and 18 all have "the prophecy," referring to the prophecy of the book of Revelation. The definite article is included in the Greek in each of these verses. Revelation 22:7, 10, and 18 have, "the words of the prophecy of this book." Revelation 22:19 has, "the words of the book of this prophecy.")
I understand the last sentence of this verse in this sense: The "testimony of [regarding] Jesus [which greatly exalts Him] is [a big part of the message inspired/given by] the [Holy] Spirit in the prophecy [of the book of Revelation]." It is also true, of course, that the Spirit exalts the Lord Jesus Christ in much other prophecy of the Bible, and in general. Compare John 15:26. The "Greek-English Lexicon" by Liddell and Scott lists "divine inspiration" as one meaning of the Greek noun ("pneuma"), which is translated "spirit" by the NASB here in Rev. 19:10.
John 6:63 is a cross-reference that will help us understand the use of the word "spirit [Spirit]" here in Rev. 19:10; it has, "It is the Spirit ["pneuma"] who gives life; the flesh profits nothing; the words that I have spoken to you are spirit ["pneuma"] and are life." However we translate the second use of "pneuma" in John 6:63, the meaning is that the "words" of Jesus are inspired/given by the Spirit of life (and it is understood that they are backed up by the Spirit); that's why they give life.
See under Rev. 22:8, 9 in my paper on Revelation chapters 20-22; also compare Acts 10:25, 26.]] (11) [[I refer the reader to the rather complete discussion of Rev. 19:11-16 on pages 25-29 of my book, "The Mid-Week Rapture." That important discussion/information, for the most part, is not repeated here. However, after I finish verse 11 and the comments I had in the original version of this paper, I'll quote what I said regarding this verse in my article, "The Mid-Week Rapture #22." This verse is quite important.]] And I saw heaven opened; and behold, a white horse [Compare Rev. 6:2; 19:19, 21. The color white goes with the purity/holiness of heaven, but it undoubtedly symbolizes victory here too.], and He who sat upon it is called Faithful and True [cf. Rev. 3:14]; and in righteousness He judges and wages war [cf. Gen. 18:25; Psalms 9:8; 72:2; 96:13; 98:9; Isa. 11:4, 5; Acts 17:31; Rev. 15:3, 4; 16:5-7; and 19:2].
EXCERPT FROM MY ARTICLE "THE MID-WEEK RAPTURE #22" ON REV. 19:11.
Let's go on to Rev. 19:11, "And I saw heaven opened, and behold, a white horse, and He who sat on it is called Faithful and True, and in righteousness He judges and wages war." Everything that the triune God does He does "in righteousness." It is clear that the Rider on a white horse is the Lord Jesus Christ. He is judging and waging war in His end-time judgment of the world. He has been judging and waging war since He returned to the earth and began to reign at the sounding of the seventh and last trumpet in the middle of Daniel's 70th week (see Rev. 11:15-18). He has already judged and removed Babylon the great harlot, and the first six bowls of wrath have already been poured out by the time we get to Rev. 19:11. Revelation 14:14-16 picture the Lord Jesus Christ sitting on a white cloud and swinging His sickle over the earth to reap the earth. I believe that reaping refers to His judgment and removal of Babylon the great harlot. (See under those verses in this paper.)
The fact that the Lord Jesus Christ is pictured with His robe dipped in blood in Rev. 19:13 serves to strongly confirm the very important fact that He has been actively engaged in judging before He judges and destroys Antichrist and his followers at the end of Revelation chapter 19. The glorified, raptured saints (who are pictured riding on white horses in verse 14) have been reigning with the Lord Jesus Christ since the time of their glorification and rapture in the middle of Daniel's 70th week (cf. Rev. 17:14). I should mention that although the Lord Jesus Christ will be visibly present at the time of His mid-week return with the clouds of heaven, apparently He will not be visibly present throughout at least most of the second half of Daniel's 70th week, when He will be judging the world.
For one thing, if the Lord were visibly present on the earth throughout much of the second half of Daniel's 70th week, it would detract from God's plans to test mankind regarding who they will worship (see Rev. 3:10). (Also see 2 Thess. 2:3-12.) The Lord Jesus Christ (and the glorified, raptured saints with Him) will be living, at least for the most part, in the heavenly (spiritual) dimension after the time of His return and the rapture, but He will be very directly involved with His end-time work of saving and judging in the spiritual and physical dimensions.
At the beginning of verse 11, John "saw heaven opened." Heaven was opened so John could see - see in a series of visions - the next things that God wanted to reveal to him, and through him to us. As I mentioned, one of the seven angels who had the seven bowls of God's wrath came to John in Rev. 17:1 and told him that he would show him the judgment of Babylon the great harlot. Revelation chapters 17, 18, and the first verses of chapter 19 dealt with that judgment. But then the angel went on (in Rev. 19:7-9) to speak of the marriage of the other woman of the book of Revelation, the woman of God's true Israel, the bride of Christ.
That angel passed from the scene with Rev. 19:9, 10, and John began to receive a series of visions that continue through Rev. 21:8. Then at Revelation 21:9 one of the seven angels who had the seven bowls of wrath came to show John the bride, the wife of the Lamb. THE FACT THAT HEAVEN WAS OPENED SO THAT JOHN COULD RECEIVE VISIONS FROM GOD IS LIKE EZEKIEL 1:1, WHERE HEAVEN WAS OPENED SO EZEKIEL COULD RECEIVE VISIONS FROM GOD. I'll read Ezek. 1:1, "Now it came about in the thirtieth year, on the fifth day, of the fourth month, while I [Ezekiel] was by the river Chebar among the exiles, the heavens were opened and I saw visions of God."
A large number of Christians (including those who hold the pre-week rapture and the end-of-the-week rapture viewpoints) believe that heaven was opened here in Rev. 19:11 so that the Lord Jesus Christ (and those with Him) could leave heaven and come to the earth at the end of Daniel's 70th week. As we have discussed, however, Rev. 11:15-18 demonstrate that the Lord Jesus Christ will come and begin to reign at the sounding of the seventh and last trumpet, right in the middle of Daniel's 70th week. And we see the resurrection, glorification, and rapture of the saints taking place in the middle of Daniel's 70th week in Rev. 12:5. We also see the resurrection, glorification, and rapture of the two witnesses/prophets taking place in the middle of the seven-year period in Rev. 11:11, 12. A cloud is even mentioned in Rev. 11:12. And we see the glorified saints with (including reigning with) the Lord Jesus after the rapture in Rev. 17:14 (Significantly, this verse speaks of Antichrist and the ten horns waging war against the Lord Jesus AND the glorified saints throughout the three and one-half year super-evil reign of Antichrist.); 19:14, 19; cf. Rev. 7:9; 13:6; and 14:14-16.
And as we have discussed, Christ's mid-week coming that is pictured in Revelation chapters 11, 12 is the same coming that is pictured in Matt. 24:30, 31 (which mention His coming, the trumpet, the rapture, and the clouds); 1 Cor. 15:51, 52 (which mention the last trumpet and the resurrection and glorification of the saints); and 1 Thess. 4:16, 17 (which mention His coming, the trumpet, the clouds, and the resurrection, glorification, and rapture of the saints). It is significant that there is no mention in Rev. 19:11 and the following verses of Christ's coming to begin to reign, or of the resurrection, glorification, or rapture of the saints, or of the trumpet, or of the clouds. (Those holding the pre-week rapture viewpoint believe that Christ will come in the sky and the saints will be resurrected, glorified, and raptured before Daniel's 70th week begins, but they don't call that His second coming. They typically speak of His second coming taking place at Rev. 19:11, very near the end of the seven-years.) Also, as we have discussed, it is significant that the Lord Jesus Christ (and the glorified, raptured saints with Him) has already judged and removed Babylon the great harlot, and the first six bowls of wrath have been poured out, before we get to Rev. 19:11. His robe has already been dipped in the blood of His enemies.
Now that we have finished the excerpt dealing with Rev. 19:11, we are ready to continue with Rev. 19:12, which we will do in Part 8 of this verse-by-verse study of Rev. 14:6-19:21.
Copyright by Karl Kemp
http://www.karlkempteachingministries.com Karl Kemp worked as an engineer in the space field throughout the 60s. He became a born-again Christian in 1964. He received an MA in Biblical Studies in 1972. He has been a Bible teacher for 45 years. See the website for more info on his books, papers, etc.
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